George Washington Carver

Further information on George Washington Carver's Research:

The Peanut and the Sweet Potato


These recipes were published as part of Tuskegee Institute Extension Bulletin #31 (Seventh Edition, January 1940).  First edition, 1925.  Carver, Director of the Experimental Station, is cited as the author.

Peanut Recipes:
(From "How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption, 1925)

Number 3:  Peanut Bisque
To 3 cups of boiling milk, add half a teaspoon chopped onion, a pinch of salt and pepper; rub to a smooth paste a tablespoon of flour with water; add half cup of peanut butter; stir in the flour; boil 3 minutes longer; serve with peanut wafers.

Number 22:  Peanut Wafers Number One
2 cups flour, 1 cup water, 1 cup powdered sugar, 1/2 cup rolled peanuts, 1/2 cup butter
Rub the butter and sugar together until light and creamy; add the flour and water alternately.  Lastly add the peanuts; drop on buttered tins, and bake quickly.  Cut into squares while hot, as it soon gets brittle after baking.

Number 63:  Peanut and Date Salad:
2 cups dates, stoned and cut into small pieces, 1/2 cup coarsely ground peanuts, 2 cups celery, finely cut
Stir well, then mix with cream salad dressing.

Number 71:  Peanut Candy
2 cups sugar, 1/2 cup milk, 2 tablespoons peanut butter
Blend together; boil for 5 minutes; remove from the fire and beat steadily till cool.

Number 80:  Peanut Butter Fudge:
2 cups powdered sugar, 1 cup milk, 2 heaping teaspoons peanut butter
Mix ingredients; boil vigorously for 5 minutes; beat; pour in a buttered pan, and cut in squares.

Number 100:  Peanut Brownies
2 eggs, 2 squares chocolate, 1 cup sugar, 1/2 cup flour, 1/2 cup melted butter
1/8 cup coarsely ground peanuts
Mix and bake in shallow pan in a quick oven; garnish the top with nuts, cut in squares.

Number 104:  Peanut Coffee
1/2 cup peanuts, 1/2 cup wheat or rye, 1/2 cup cow peas
Roast all to a rich coffee brown; grind and make as for postrum.  To those who like a ceral coffee, this will be quite acceptable, even delicious.  To more or less habitual coffee drinkers, one-third or one-half real coffee will make the above recipe more acceptable.


A Listing Of Products Developed from the Peanut by Carver:
This listing (1959) was developed by the George Washington Carver Museum (National Park Service), located at Tuskegee University.
As noted on the original, the "above list is not complete, but has been compiled as accurately as possible from records left by Carver."

"We look forward to the day when the South will fully realize what a vast storehouse of 
wealth it has in these plants, and capital will be turned into their manufacture."  
George Washington Carver

As a result of his creative research, Carver developed:
From the clays of Alabamaface powder, pigments for paints, wood stains, wall papers, and ceramic products.

From the sweet potatoover 118 products, including starch, tapioca, mock coconuts, molasses, various kinds of breakfast foods, food for livestock, dyes for silks and cotton, flour (used by the U.S. Government during World War I), vinegar, ink, and synthetic rubber.

From the peanutupwards to 300 products, such as milk, cream, cheeses, condiments, coffee, plastics, paper and insulating board, wood stains, and clothing dye.  Also lard, flour, stock foods, soap, linoleum, cooking oils, and medicinal oils.

From cottonpaving blocks, cordage, paper, and fiber for rope.

From the soy beanseveral types of flour, regular and instant coffee, a variety of cheeses, sauce, bisque for ice cream and candies, oil, chick food, soup mixtures, bran and stock food.

From waste and native materialsrugs, table runners, table mats, scarves, fuel bricks, floor mats, synthetic marble, a re-enforcing material (from wood shavings and sawdust) for concrete, insulating board and wall board, wood veneers from the yucca and Florida palm, basketry work from the wisteria vine, feathers of millinery purposes (secured from native wild and barnyard fowls), and vegetable dyes.

Carver received several patents in the 1920s for cosmetics from peanuts, improvements in producing paints and stains, including the cold water process, and a blanket patent covering several processes for the manufacture of paints and stains from clays, minerals, etc.  In 1927, he also received a patent for Penol, a medicine, which was a stable emulsion of creosote with peanut juices.

Carver always felt that his discoveries and the products of his research were revelations, and therefore belonged to everyone.  His patents were therefore not renewed and much other valuable information, including formulae, were acquired without cost.  


Foods:  salted peanuts, breakfast foods #1-5, bisque powder, peanut meal #1-2, chocolate coated peanuts, peanut cake #1-2, dry coffee, instant coffee, peanut hearts, mock oysters, worcestershire sauce, peanut food #1, peanut sprouts, peanut tofu sauce, cream from milk, buttermilk, milks (numbering 32), curds, vinegar, crystallized peanuts, peanut relish #1-2, peanut chocolate fudge, peanut and popcorn bars, peanut bar #1, peanut tutti-frutti bars, lard compound, sweet pickle, cheese cream, cheese pimento, cheese tutti-frutti, white pepper (from the vines), cocoa, peanut kisses, peanut wafers, peanut butter (numbering 3), butter from peanut milk, pancake flour (numbering 11), peanut surprise, malted peanuts, peanut meal, meat substitute, chili sauce, peanut brittle, cream candy, peanut flakes (numbering 2), chop suey sauce, mayonnaise, peanut meat loaf, shredded peanuts, cooking oil, salad oil, mock meat, mock veal cutlet, mock chicken, mock duck, mock goose, peanut sausage, flavoring paste, oleomargarine, dehydrated milk flakes, caramel, butterscotch, evaporated milk, golden nuts, substitute asparagus, cheese nut sage, cheese sandwich, plain pickle, peanut dainties, bar candy.

Stock Foodspeanut stock foods #1-3, peanut hull stock food, peanut hull bran, hen food, peanut hull meal, molasses feed, peanut hay meal, peanut meal (numbering 3).

Beveragespeanut orange punch #1-2, normal peanut beverage, plum punch, cherry punch, peanut lemon punch, peanut punch #2, beverage for ice cream, blackberry punch, evaporated peanut beverage, pineapple punch.

Medicinesrubbing oil, tanic acid, emulsion for bronchitis, castor oil substitute, iron tonic, goiter treatment, quinine, laxatives.

Cosmeticshand lotion, face cream, face bleach and tan remover, shampoo, shaving cream, face ointment, face powder, fat producing cream, toilet soap, pomade for skin, face lotion, vanishing cream, oil for hair and scalp, pomade for scalp, glycerine, all purpose cream, dandruff cure, and antiseptic soap.

Household Productslaundry soap and sweeping compound.

Dyes, Paints, and Stainsleather dyes (numbering 18), wood stains (numbering 17), special peanut dye, dyes for cloth (numbering 30), and paint.

Generalfuel bricks, colored paper (from skins), newsprint paper (from vines), insecticide, gasoline, wood filler, plastics, lubricating oil, diesel fuel, writing ink, furnace coke (from hulls), white paper (from vines), paper (from hulls), coarse paper (from skins), glue, gas, metal polish, axle grease, illuminating oil, printers' ink, rubber, washing powder, hand cleanser, wall boards (from hull, numbering 11), sizing for walls, nitroglycerine, soap stock, linoleum, insulating boards (numbering 18), charcoal (from shells), soil conditioner, and shoe and leather backing.

A Listing Of Products Developed from the Sweet Potato by Carver:
This listing (1959) was developed by the George Washington Carver Museum (National Park Service), located at Tuskegee University.
As noted on the original, the "above list is not complete, but has been compiled as accurately as possible from records left by Carver."

Foodsflour (numbering 4), sugar, mock coconut, vinegar, synthetic ginger, chocolate, dry paste, bisque powder, meal (numbering 4), yeast, instant coffee, lemon drops, sauce, starch (numbering 4), molasses, tapioca, egg yolk, candy (numbering 14), dried potatoes #1-2, potato nibs, breakfast foods (numbering 5), after dinner mints #1-3, dry coffee, granulated potatoes, orange drops, and spiced vinegar.

Livestock Foodsstock feed meal (numbering 3) and hog feed.

Generalstains, paints, library paste (numbering 5), rubber compounds, shoe blacking, synthetic cotton, paper (from vines), dyes (numbering 73), medicine, alcohol, writing ink, fillers for wood (numbering 14), and synthetic silk.



Umbra African American Link